Posts from the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

TalkShoe – Session 3 Reflection

Hello!

Thank you Dr. Newberry for letting me know that I could go back and listen to the recording of TalkShoe! Horray!

I have a soft spot for ODL, as I was a student assistant for this department for nearly two years when I was an undergrad at CSUSB. I remember when Moodle was in the testing stages!

Dr. Monaghan stated that when choosing an LMS, one should be sure that it is reliable, it is is user friendly and easy to navigate. These, and other such factors, where taken into consideration when CSUSB chose a LMS. I thought it was particularly interesting that CSUSB has not always used BlackBoard – for some reason I thought it was the only true higher education LMS! The first LMS used was Web CT and it was eliminated because BlackBoard was more user friendly (Side note: I don’t know about reliability – I think just about everyone has dealt with a BlackBoard system failure during a final!)

The newest version of BlackBoard 9.1 will be integrated soon and will have new features such as blogging, chatting and wikis. Additionally, the gradebook will now reflect an Excel spreadsheet. I think that the use of wikis will be especially useful, especially for threading topics and discussions within a course.  Though, I have previously created a wiki on Moodle for a course and found that I most fought with linking and threading issues, rather than actually engaging with the content. I hope that the BlackBoard version is much more user friendly.

Final Project

I chose Option 1. You can different versions of the presentation below:

PDF – eLearning Presentation

PowerPoint – eLearning Presentation

 

I have included an outline of the project below:

eLearning Presentation

By Elizabeth Tomzik

Outline of Presentation

About this presentation

Why I chose PowerPoint

Types of mediums

PowerPoint and media richness

PowerPoint and social learning

Making PowerPoint ADA compliant

About This Presentation

1.Produced with PowerPoint, Microsoft Office 2007
2.Simple white background with black text
3.PowerPoint presentations are graphic slide shows, but can also be text based.
4.A PDF and text version of this PowerPoint are also available.

Why PowerPoint?

The reasons are endless!

1.Easy to format for web delivery
2.Easy to create text documents, including PDF’s and Word documents
3.Can be as simple or complicated in design
4.User friendly
5.Compatible with most users Operating Systems

Types of Mediums

All mediums are either synchronous or asynchronous.

1. Synchronous – Students and instructors engage the elearning environment at the same time, but not necessarily from the same site. Synchronous mediums are useful for increasing motivation and engagement. It also can assist with providing social presence. Examples of a synchronous medium would be TalkShoe or Skype.

2. Asynchronous – Students and instructors engage the elearning environment but not at the same time, nor from the same site. Asynchronous mediums are useful for students to engage in eLearning at their preferred time and place. PowerPoint presentations are asynchronous, as they can be uploaded to an LMS (learning management system) and can be accessed at varying times and sites.

 PowerPoint and Media Richness

Media richness is useful theory for understanding how a certain media would work in a given learning situation Media richness is determined by the following criteria:

1.Ability to give instant feedback
•PowerPoint does not have an option to provide instant feedback
2.The capacity  to transmit cues such as facial expression, body language and tone of voice
•Facial cues and tone of voice can be communicated with a speech to text option
•Facial cues, tone of voice and body language can be communicated with either audio or video
3. The ability to use natural language
•Natural language can be used in text
4.How the media is able to provide personal focus
•PowerPoint is meant for a general audience. It does not allow personal focus, though it does allow for outline and text to audio options

PowerPoint and Media Richness

Media richness is useful theory for understanding how a certain media would work in a given learning situation.

As a rule:

1. The more ambiguous the task, the richer the media     should be

For example:

Problem Solving Task – Best served by a media rich   medium

Directive Task – Lean of rich media which is straight to   the point.

 PowerPoint and Social Presence

Social Presence is the distinctiveness of a medium that is seeming and reported students in learning environment.

Social presence is, therefore, determined by the medium.

In conclusion, social present explains the ability of the medium to transmit realness of a learning situation.

 Social Presence – How it impacts students

In Dr. Newberry’s work, the following was reported:

1. If a student expects a high level of social presence in the course, they tend to be more satisfied when they experience high levels of social presence.

2. If a student expects a high level of social presence in a course, and they do not received high levels of social presence, they tend to be more dissatisfied.

3. If a student doesn’t expect high levels of interaction, they do not report a decrease in satisfaction when they are in a situation with low social presence.

4. If a student doesn’t expect high levels of interaction, they do not report an increase in satisfaction when they are involved in interactions with a high social presence.

ADA Compliance and PowerPoint

All learning mediums must be in compliance with the American Disabilities Act (ADA).

The American Disabilites Act requires that any learning institution that receives government funding has classes that are accessible for those with disabilities.

A course must developed within these guidelines, regardless of whether there is a student with disabilities in the course.

All materials related to a course must be accessible.

I find that the best way to avoid an ADA compliance issues is to use a checklist to be certain that their course is compliant.

 ADA Checklist

The following is a checklist that I developed for a previous assignment. It has proved the most useful for maintaining ADA compliance when using PowerPoint as an eLearning tool.

You can find the guidelines that I used to develop the checklist here.

If you are able to answer “Yes” to all of the following questions, the PowerPoint presentation is ADA compliant.

Continue to the next page for the ADA checklist.

 ADA Checklist

Is a text version of all video/audio available?

Are indicators in plain text (no color)?

Are markup sheets used correctly?

Is the language easy to understand?

Did the tables publish correctly?

Did all the page over all publish as intended?

Can the user control time-sensitive content?

Can the user access all outside links?

Can the course be used independent of a certain devices?

Is there a clear context of the information provided?

Is an orientation to the information provided?

Can the user easily navigate through the pages?

Are there indicators for navigation?

Are all documents clear and simple?

Conclusion

PowerPoint is useful for eLearning because it allows for asynchonous communication.

PowerPoint is typically provides low levels of social presence.

PowerPoint can be as media rich or as media lean as an instructor chooses.

PowerPoint can be easily tailored to comply with ADA compliance standards.

Motivation & Engagement

I was unable to make it to the live TalkShoe session because of work, but I was able to listen to the recording (whew, thank you technology!). Motivation and engagement are two important factors for maintaining an eLearning environment. First, I will discuss motivation.

There are three components of internal motivation:

1. Intrinsic Self-motivation. This is the students enjoyment of the course, or the topic of the course. This is personality based, and can not be achieved by the instructor.  This process is purely internal. Within intrinsic self-motivation, there are two types.

  • Internal locus of control – Students believes that they have complete control over their circumstances.
  • External locus of control. – One does not have control of their future or actions. but instead it is determined by others.

2. Individual self-interest. Also based on a students enjoyment of the course. The instructor can stimulate interest, though due to some students intrinsic self-motivation, this still can prove difficult for an instructor.

3. Required preparation for motivation. The understanding of what it takes to achieve the required objectives throughout the course. Here, the instructor can take a large role in determining what students can expect throughout a course.

There are four types of external motivation:

1. Structure/Pace of the course. Weekly assignments tend to work better than singular (midterm and final) in eLearning courses. This gives students the motivation for the students to maintain engagement in the course.

2.  Activities. Any activities that take place in an eLearning environment should be clear and concise. Examples of the expected product of the activity is useful. If the students have difficulty in understanding the activity, they will lack motivation to complete the activity. The less ambiguity, the better.

3. Technology. Though some students may like to use a variety of technologies. The use of varying technologies can decrease motivation in some students who many not like to use the different technologies or who do not have the motivation to learn a new technology.  Instructors should be sure that the technologies used should be easy to use. Additionally, I think that it is our responsibility as instructors to be sure that any additional technology that is required within the course is compatible with both PC and MAC.

4. Communication. If there is a clear line of communication between the instructor and student, the student is more likely to maintain motivation. Continuous communication is particularly important in eLearning. This can be achieved through emails and feedback on assignments.

Overall, I think that too often instructors become too goal based and forget exactly who their audience is. By taking into account who an instructors audience is, they will can use further tactics to engage and motivate their students – and a win/win will be had by all!

ADA Compliance Part II

Choose two ways of creating instructor created presentations and that you might use and explain how you will ensure that they are ADA compliant. 

I would make an ADA compliant powerpoint presentation. The powerpoint would be offered in plain black text and a white background. No color indicators would be used. If I insert any video/audio of any type, I would be certain to provide a caption and text option of the media. The text would be provided in a simple PDF file, so as to provide accessibility to the user.

To be certain my course is compliant, I would make a checklist. The checklist would be based upon the guidelines featured in ADA Compliance Part I.

Question Yes or No
Is a text version of all video/audio available?  
Are indicators in plain text (no color)?  
Are markup sheets used correctly?  
Is the language easy to understand?  
Did the tables publish correctly?  
Did all the page over all publish as intended?  
Can the user control time-sensitive content?  
Can the user access all outside links?  
Can the course be used independent of a certain devices?  
Is there a clear context of the information provided?  
Is an orientation to the information provided?  
Can the user easily navigate through the pages?  
Are there indicators for navigation?  
Are all documents clear and simple?  

ADA Compliance – Part I

Name of evaluator: Elizabeth Tomzik

URL of page being evaluated: http://studyonthebeach.com/csusb/classes/etec_674_spring_2011/media/eLearningADATestPage.html

Explain your procedure:

 

I have evaluated the above URL based upon Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0. You can find the Guidelines here or an annotated version below.

1. Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content.

2. Don’t rely on color alone.

3. Use markup and style sheets and do so properly.

4. Clarify natural language usage

5. Create tables that transform gracefully.

6. Ensure that pages featuring new technologies transform gracefully.

7. Ensure user control of time-sensitive content changes.

8. Ensure direct accessibility of embedded user interfaces.

9. Design for device-independence.

10. Use interim solutions.

11. Use W3C technologies and guidelines.

12. Provide context and orientation information.

13. Provide clear navigation mechanisms.

14. Ensure that documents are clear and simple.

List Any Problems Found:

 

I have identified a few problems with the above URL.

  1. Red-Green-Blue Combinations
  2. Color conveys meaning
  3. High contrast
  4. No optional text option to audio version
  5. Internal navigation to skip through sections

 

Explain How to Correct These Problems:

  1. Red-Green-Blue Combinations
    1. a.      Change all font to black
  2. Color conveys meaning
    1. a.      Color should not convey meaning. Instead, spell out any connotations that require meaning.
  3. High contrast
    1. a.      High contrast can be avoided by using black font with a simple white background. This would make text easy to read.
  4. No optional text option to audio version
    1. a.      Either captioning or a text version of all audio would eliminate this problem
  5. Internal navigation to skip through sections
    1. a.      This can be corrected by providing hot links that would the user to skip through sections.

 

Annotated Bibliography

Citation:

Waldeck, J. H. (2008). The Development of an Industry-Specific Online Learning Center: Consulting Lessons Learned. Communication Education, 57(4), 452-463. doi:10.1080/03634520801894747

Summary:

Waldeck (2008) created an online learning program for a business to accomplish educational objections. Waldeck (2008) create a series of web-based, industry specific, training modules that provided users with a place to communicate with peers in different markets and access information related to their markets. In addition, the programmers created a game of sorts which followed strategic moves and pitfalls associated with the industry. Waldeck (2008) assessed the success of the program through course assessments, enrollment figures, completion rates, participation in features and users response to the materials. The author found that business owners believed that their business management and leadership skills improved as result of their interaction with learning content. Though the program was successful, it only had a life of three years due to funding.

Review:

Overall, this is my favorite article that I found as it discusses a similar business partner version of an LMS like I work with at my job.  The article provides a broad analysis of how the LMS was created and to what purpose it serves and explains how an LMS is useful in a business setting. Though LMS are traditionally used in a classic education setting, I appreciate that the authors worked with a LMS in a nontraditional environment. My only critique is that the authors should have provided a larger scale example of their coding for success. I am also interested to see the results of a program like this over time, such as the profitability of those who took the courses.

Citation:

Mayor, M., & Ivars, A. (2007). E-Learning for interpreting. Babel, 53(4), 292-302. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.libproxy.lib.csusb.edu/ehost/detail?sid=45e05c70-8527-4d0a-9ea0-2f506254d739%40sessionmgr14&vid=1&hid=10&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=ufh&AN=32192502

Summary:

The authors explain the simulations of real life experiences are often left out of elearning. Simulations, which include response to incidents and situations, are now being incorporated and offer a range of recording of these simulations for future interpretation and analysis. In method, the instructor has an PC which is equipped to view such presentations. Each training station is equipped with audio panel. The interactions gained during the time at these modules can be later reviewed, analyzed and evaluated to hone in on students skills. The training can even be proliferated through a website, granted the student has the tools. The benefits of such training include convenience, granting the students responsibility to complete the program, the teacher becomes a learning facilitator.       Furthermore, for such a distance program to be successful the program must have the following:

  1. Knowledge transfer. Students need to be able to apply what the learn in a distance setting to the real world.
  2. Learner must take an active role in learning.
  3. Learner must be able to deal with a variety of experience so that they can construct mental models of the experiences for future use.

Review:

This article is particularly useful, as it examines how real life training simulations can be offered in an elearning environment. The article more so provides a broad analysis of how such a simulation can be offered then an actual testing of such modules

I think that this article is useful as it provides a basis from which one can create a real life training simulation. I do think that programming of this such an LMS would be quite complicated, and I wonder how cost effective such a program would be. Additionally, though I find that the simulations would be useful, I am also interested how the simulations would actually translate into real world environments. Thus, I believe that future experimental research should be engaged so as to determine if the authors findings are useful and conduscive to elearning.

Citation:

O’Brien, M. (2009). THE E-LEARNING INDUSTRY. Rocky Mountain Communication Review, 6(1), 57-61. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.libproxy.lib.csusb.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&hid=10&sid=1e93d71f-8aba-463e-b344-0da4add8283a%40sessionmgr13

Summary:

O’Brien (2009) examines how face-to-face training is often preferred to online learning because of the isolation factor that is associated with online training. What has caused this context is that learning in the workplace is often informal, such as through (1) watching and modeling behaviors of coworkers, (2) there is no social way to relate to the online learning module. The second of the stated has changed through the use of social media forums. Thus, the authors finds that elearning training environments coupled with networking tools of support, the training online training environment may stand a chance against the favor of face-to-face communication. The author concludes that most LMS systems are purely modules that control and manage learning, but integration of social software can increase favor and use of online learning.

Review:

This article is particularly useful, as it examines the reasons why face-to-face training is preferred to online training. The article was based on what we already know, but lays out such concepts in a way that is easy to understand. I found it particularly useful how the article acknowledges that informal learning adds to ones basis of knowledge and therefore, that gain of such informal knowledge is important to incorporate when developing an LMS.

I think that this article is useful as it provides a basis of support of online social learning in the development of an LMS. In a consumer setting, I think that social learning through the use of forums can take this role in such a way that learning in a business environment can take place. Like O’Brien (2009), I believe that future research needs to develop social tools that are created to work with the LMS that elevate the elearning experience.

 

Citation:

Jayanti, R. K., & Singh, J. (2010). Pragmatic learning theory: An inquiry-action framework for distributed consumer learning in online communities. Journal of Consumer Research, 36(6), 1058-1081. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.libproxy.lib.csusb.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=f345dc5d-37fd-48c5-a991-900cc84c327e%40sessionmgr13&vid=1&hid=10

Summary:

The authors examine whether or not participation in online learning communities promotes empowered decision making among consumers. Jayanti and Singh (2010), like previous scholars, believe that decision making is something that is developed, thus it can be nurtured in an elearning environment. Jayanti and Singh (2010) engaged in a longitudal study which included sampling of forums on a asynchronous bulletin board. These boards were found through Google. The authors looked for boards with descriptive content and those which had a wide range of users. With in the forums, the authors looked for the number of threads related to a particular consumer issues, the length of the postings, the content and those which remained on track with the topic at hand. The information was coded based on when action was taken over a period of time, when each inquiry was laid forth, how was it explained, and how the pattern of inquiry continued in the forum.

Jayanti and Singh (2010) concluded the following:

  1. There are two basis of knowledge, that which is reflected through experience or acquisition. Inquiry bridges the different between knowledge and knowing.
  2. Inquiry and action forms in a cycle. Inquiry and experimental knowledge empowers decision making.
  3. Learning trajectories reflect diverse modes of learning – thus consumer learning can be a achieved by insinuating a motivating inquiry

Review:

            This is an interesting article, as it explores how users learn in an online learning community through methods of inquiry. I particularly found the tools and coding features that the authors presented as useful. I also like that the study was longitudal, which increases the studies validity.

Overall, I found that this article was useful as it acknowledges that inquiry is the point of which online learning can take place and develop. Similarly, I think that this article supports the use of forums in promoting learning and development of ones basis of knowledge. In a consumer setting, I think that forums do play this role in such a way that consumers learn more about a product and thus encourage (or discourage) one another based on the inquiry that occurred in the forum. Like the authors, I believe that future research needs to be done as to determine what makes online learning interaction social vs. action based.

 

Citation:

Liyan, S., & Hill, J. R. (2009). Understanding adult learners’ self regulation in online environments: A qualitative study. International Journal of Instructional Media, 36(3), 263-274. Retrieved from http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com.libproxy.lib.csusb.edu/hww/results/external_link_maincontentframe.jhtml?_DARGS=/hww/results/results_common.jhtml.44

Summary:

The authors of this article examine how learners self-regulate their learning through the use of resources, strategies, and motivation in synchronous and asynchronous environments. The researchers followed six participants who were in enrolled in an online course. The researchers engaged in a qualitative analysis which involved eighteen face-to-face interviews of the participants. Three semi-structure interviews were also conducted face-to-face throughout the term. Other data was obtained through online forums used in the online class. This data was used to provide further insight into the data provided by the interview. The data was analyzed through thematizing, coding and categorizing.

The authors found that self-regulated learning will help learners overcome challenges (resource use and motivation). Additionally, the authors found that online learners must use self-regulation skills more than face-to-face learners. These strategies include verbal communication strategies, more motivation to participate and the abilility to rationalize the use of online tools and activities when they are not monitored. The authors explain that more research is needed to understand tools that can be used to improve users online self-regulated skills.

Review:

This is an interesting article, as it explores how users are kept engaged in an online learning environment through self regulation. However, this article did lack which coding tools and resources it used in its qualitative analysis. I also thought the sample size of six students was far too small to be completely reliable.

Though I found that the article lacked in some areas, I though that it was useful to point out that motivation plays a factor in how successful a user is an elearning environment. In my experience, there must be a motivating factor for a user to engage in the elearning – such as a requirement for a degree. I found that like the author, more research needs to be done to examine how to motivate users though I think that the article provides a good standing point to understand what other self-regulating tools are used by online learners.

Grading and Such!

Hello!

I chose to make a test module for those are studying what currency to use when one does International Business.

To take the quiz, you must do the following (Click here to access the test):

1. Register first with QuizStar. The registration is free!

2. After you register, click Search for A Class

3. At the search landing page, search the course by the Course Name “Tomzik – International Business”

4. Register for the course

You’re done!

I found a great the rubric with Rubistar (To find the rubric, enter Sales into the Search Engine) a This is a assignment given in training seminar for entitled “Understanding International Sales Presentations.”

Understanding International Sales Presenations

You have completed all of the course materials! Now, you must give us a mock sales presentation. You will be assigned an international client who is interested in international business. You will be graded by how well you touched upon the following prompts during your sales presentation. Do you research! Please see the Rubric below to see exactly how what you will be graded on

1. What is best place to discuss business?

2. What currency will the transaction take place?

3. Who are you competitors?

4. What gains can be made by doing business together?

5. Why they are interested in globalization.

6. What future investment options are available?

CATEGORY
4
3
2
1
Attire
Business attire, very professional look.
Casual business attire.
Casual business attire, but wore sneakers or seemed somewhat wrinkled.
General attire not appropriate for audience (jeans, t-shirt, shorts).
Enthusiasm
Facial expressions and body language generate a strong interest and enthusiasm about the topic in others.
Facial expressions and body language sometimes generate a strong interest and enthusiasm about the topic in others.
Facial expressions and body language are used to try to generate enthusiasm, but seem somewhat faked.
Very little use of facial expressions or body language. Did not generate much interest in topic being presented.
Preparedness
Student is completely prepared and has obviously rehearsed.
Student seems pretty prepared but might have needed a couple more rehearsals.
The student is somewhat prepared, but it is clear that rehearsal was lacking.
Student does not seem at all prepared to present.
Props
Student uses several props (could include costume) that show considerable work/creativity and which make the presentation better.
Student uses 1 prop that shows considerable work/creativity and which make the presentation better.
Student uses 1 prop which makes the presentation better.
The student uses no props OR the props chosen detract from the presentation.
Comprehension
Student is able to accurately answer almost all questions posed by classmates about the topic.
Student is able to accurately answer most questions posed by classmates about the topic.
Student is able to accurately answer a few questions posed by classmates about the topic.
Student is unable to accurately answer questions posed by classmates about the topic.
Uses Complete Sentences
Always (99-100% of time) speaks in complete sentences.
Mostly (80-98%) speaks in complete sentences.
Sometimes (70-80%) speaks in complete sentences.
Rarely speaks in complete sentences.
Listens to Other Presentations
Listens intently. Does not make distracting noises or movements.
Listens intently but has one distracting noise or movement.
Sometimes does not appear to be listening but is not distracting.
Sometimes does not appear to be listening and has distracting noises or movements.
Content
Shows a full understanding of the topic.
Shows a good understanding of the topic.
Shows a good understanding of parts of the topic.
Does not seem to understand the topic very well.
Collaboration with Peers
Almost always listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Tries to keep people working well together.
Usually listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Does not cause “waves” in the group.
Often listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group but sometimes is not a good team member.
Rarely listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Often is not a good team member.

Discussion: I am having technical difficulties with the discussion board. I will post here as soon as I am able to logon.